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telnovat Latest Articles

Cyclic Prefix in 4G/5G: What & Why?

In this post, we will discuss everything about the cyclic prefix. In order to understand cyclic prefix let’s first revise our concepts about OFDM and signal processing. When a device transmits a signal, it may or may not reach directly ...

RAN 7.3 functional Split

Several options for splitting RAN functions have been proposed by 3GPP, going from option 1 to option 8. Every split function has its own pros and cons. It turns out that the 7.2x split offers the best balance between RU ...

Non-3GPP Trusted and Untrusted Access

3GPP Access: 3GPP Access includes all the entities involved in the network are defined by 3GPP. Example: A 3GPP defined UE getting access from 5G-RAN ( gNB ) and 5GC. Non-3GPP Access: Non-3GPP Access includes access from the entities those ...

Zero Power CSI-RS (ZP-CSI-RS) in 5G NR

Channel State Information Reference Signal (CSI-RS) enables UEs to report channel state information to the network. These signals are used for beamforming support and can be configured either beam specific or UE specific. The resource elements carrying the CSI-RS can ...